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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 12  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 57-63

Protein kinase signaling by Shiga Toxin subunits


Department of Molecular Biology, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran

Correspondence Address:
Mana Oloomi
Department of Molecular Biology, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran
Iran
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jmss.JMSS_79_20

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Background: Escherichia coli produces Shiga toxin (Stx), a pentamer composed of one A subunit and four B subunits. The B subunit of Stx (StxB) mediated the attachment of the holotoxin to the cell surface while the A subunit (StxA) has N-glycosidase activity, resulting in protein synthesis and cell death inhibition. Stx-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis have been observed in various cell lines, although the signaling effectors are not precisely defined. Activated by protein kinases (PK), the signaling pathway in human tumors plays an oncogenic role. Tumor proliferation, survival, and metastasis are promoted by kinase receptors. In this regard, PK regulatory effects on the cellular constituents of the tumor microenvironment can affect immunosuppressive purposes. Methods: In this study, kinase inhibitors were used to evaluate the influence of Stx and its subunits on HeLa and Vero cells. Selective inhibitors of protein kinase C (PKC), CaM kinase (calmodulin kinase), protein kinase A (PKA), and protein kinase G (PKG) were used to compare the signaling activity of each subunit. Results: The ribotoxic activity in the target cells will lead to rapid protein synthesis inhibition and cell death in the mammalian host. The expression of Bcl2 family members was also assessed. Protein kinase signaling by Stx and its A and B subunits was induced by PKA, PKG, and PKC in HeLa cells. CaM kinase induction was significant in Vero cells. StxB significantly induced the pro-apoptotic Bax signaling factor in HeLa cells. Conclusion: The assessment of different signaling pathways utilized by Stx and its subunits could help in a better understanding of various cell death responses. The use of inhibitors can block cell damage and disease progression and create therapeutic compounds for targeted cancer therapy. Inhibition of these pathways is the primary clinical goal.


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